Advance - Whereupon, when coming to a halt at the end of a menage, the horse picks up his front feet a few times while his back feet stay on the ground. Also referred to by some authors as a pesade.
Carere, Carrere, Carriera - (n.) An area or other place or track which is used to exercise horses.
“... wheeling to and fro forward as it were the length of a short carriera… you shall return to the other end of the carriera…” (Corte, p. 30)
(v.) Performing a particular exercise on horseback.
“... to find the will and disposition of the horse, not only in his trot, but also in his gallop, carriera, and stop…” (Corte p. 31)
Ciambetta, Gambetta - Spanish walk.
“You can then teach to the horse the Ciambetta, ... you can go in the barn on the right side of the Manger to which the horse is tied up and then beat him with a stick in his right arm, ... and so beating him this way you will incite him with the sound of the tongue to lift that arm. … you will make him do the Ciambetta with his left arm: then when he will be able to raise well each arm to your liking … “(Caracciolo, 1566, trans. Tomassini).
“... striking him with a rod upon the inside of that leg, which you would have him lift or put forward, adding thereunto your voice, as; Up, up: which you must continue till the horse lifts his leg.” (Corte, p. 28)
Courbette, Corvetta, Corvetty, Corvetti - The horse rears up on his hind legs, then “bunny hops” repeatedly, each time landing on his hind legs.
“Corvetta is that motion, which the crow maketh, when without flying she leaps and jumps upon the ground.” (Corte, p. 46)
Doubling - A volte on two tracks, modernly called a pirouette.
Elne - A unit of measure used to describe the size of various exercises. Also called an ell.
“ The rings serve all sorts of horses ought to be four elnes at least in their diameter… you must put forth the horse straight the length of six elnes…” (Corte, p. 6)
Gallop - The 16th century term for a canter or lope. Corte recommended that a young horse not be cantered until he had been under saddle for two months and could “trot well and be settled of the head…” (Corte p. 28)
“... and suddenly put him forth upon his trot, and frankly fall into a gallop…” (Corte, p. 31)
Maneggi, menage, passade - The fundamental exercise in the art of fighting on horseback. It involves cantering a straight line, then stopping and turning immediately before cantering back in the opposite direction. Also used to describe specific exercises.
“Another kind of manage there is, which may be likened unto an S… The profit that comes by this kind of manage is great…” (Corte, p. 13)
Pesade, pessate, posata - Where the horse stops on his haunches and raises his front legs off the ground several times. The horse was then often asked to pivot one way or the other on his hind legs.
“... those liftings up and lettings down of the horse’s feet in just time and order… not so much moving forward…”(Corte, p. 54)
“... remembering in the end to stop him comely, with two or three pessate made well…” (Corte, p. 58)
Piaffe - A trot in place.
“... and make him do as most of the horses from Spain do, as one begins to hold them, go with their haunches to the ground. And while he is held, he should remain in motion, that is to say now with one, now with the other arm raised; also taking care that he chews the bridle so that it makes sound, because in doing so in addition to being beautiful to watch it will be safer, and no one will find fault with this.” (Fiaschi, 1556, trans. Tomassini)
Repolone - Moving in a straight line, usually at the canter.
Volte - A small circle. De La Broue’s second book is an excellent reference and shows voltes of different sizes, with the horse straight, haunches in, shoulder in, etc.